MUSCULO-SKELETAL DRUGS

Neuromuscular Drugs

Neuromuscular blocking agents are strong muscle relaxants generally used while surgery to prevent muscle movement. They are structurally related to acetylcholine (the main neurotransmitter of body) and they cause muscle relaxation by binding to acetylcholine receptors postsynaptically (which prevents acetylcholine from binding). This blocks neuromuscular transmission and causes paralysis of the muscle.

Neuromuscular blocking agents should only be used as an adjunct to anesthesia when artificial ventilation is available.

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs :

  1. Atracurium
  2. Cisatracurium
  3. Nimbex
  4. Norcuron
  5. Pancuronium
  6. Pavulon
  7. Rocuronium
  8. Tracrium
  9. Vecuronium
  10. Zemuron

Topical Analgesic Drugs

When you have joint pain or your muscles ache, topical pain killers, those you apply to your skin provides relief. You will find many products for topical pain relief at your nearby drugstore.Here are some popular drugs and what you need to know if you’d like to use them.

Analgesic Creams, Rubs, and Sprays

Topical pain killers, or analgesics, are sprayed on or rubbed on skin over painful muscles or joints. Although are all designed to relieve pain, different products / Brands use different formulation. Here are the most common ingredients found in products available without a prescription.

Topical Analgesic Drugs:

  1. Benzocaine
  2. Benzocaine/ Butamben/ Tetracaine
  3.  Benzyl Alcohol
  4. Capsaicin
  5. Dibucaine
  6. Diclofenac
  7. Ethyl Chloride
  8. Hexylresorcinol
  9. Lidocaine
  10. Lidocaine/Prilocaine
  11. Lidocaine/Tetracaine
  12. Methyl Salicylate/ Menthol
  13. Pramoxine
  14. Proparacaine
  15. Tetracaine
  16. Trolamine

Muscle Relaxant Drugs

Muscle relaxants are drugs that are prescribed to relax and reduce tension in muscles. They are more simply referred to as muscle relaxants.

Some work in the brain or spinal cord to block or dampen down excessively stimulated nerve pathways. These are called centrally acting muscle relaxants and examples include baclofen, methocarbamol, and tizanidine.

Others act directly on muscle fibers and are classified as peripherally acting muscle relaxants. Examples include dantrolene and the different types of botulinum toxin. Although dantrolene acts directly on the muscle itself, it also appears to indirectly act on the central nervous system and can cause drowsiness.

Cannabis extract also has muscle relaxing properties and is thought to act both centrally and peripherally.

Muscle Relaxant Drugs:

  1. Baclofen
  2. Carisoprodol
  3. Chlorzoxazone
  4. Cyclobenzaprine
  5. Dantrolene
  6. Metaxalone
  7. Methocarbamol
  8. Orphenadrine
  9. Tizanidine
  10. Diazepam

Nonopioid Analgesic Drugs

Non-opioid analgesics are diverse group of drugs that include anti-inflammatory drugs (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) and Paracetamol.

Most anti-inflammatory drugs do have ability to relieve fever and anti platelet (anti-clotting) properties. Paracetamol used to reduce fever, but has little anti-inflammatory effects but no effect on blood clotting. Paracetamol is the preferred option for fever and moderate pain as it has fewer adverse effects.

Nonopioid Analgesics:

  1. Diclofenac Sodium
  2. Diclofenac Potassium
  3. Etodolac
  4. Ibuprofen
  5. Ketoprofen
  6. Mefenemic Acid
  7. Naproxin
  8. Indomethacin
  9. Meloxicam
  10. Piroxicam
  11. Paracetamol

Opioid Analgesic Drugs

Narcotic analgesic or opioid medications are used for treatment of moderate to severe pain.

Narcotic analgesics acts on receptors on nerves in the brain that increase the threshold of pain (i.e., the amount of stimulation required to feel pain), and reduce the perception of pain . Most patients take narcotic analgesics for short-periods of time until pain reduces or subsides. Some adults have chronic pain, which needs proper pain management because long term use can lead to addiction and tolerance (the need for increasing doses). Narcotic analgesics have a high potential for misuse, abuse, and diversion (to addicted persons).

Opioid Analgesics:

  1. Codeine
  2. Hydrocodone
  3. Methadone
  4. Hydromorphone
  5. Morphine
  6. Fentanyl

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