Anthelmintics are a type of medicine that kills helminths. Helminths are worm-like parasites such as flukes, roundworms, and tapeworms.
It is important that anthelmintics are selectively toxic to the parasite and not the host. Some work by inhibiting metabolic processes that are vital to the parasite but absent or not vital in the host. Other anthelmintics are poorly absorbed through the gut, which means the parasite is exposed to much higher concentrations of the anthelmintic than the host. Starvation or paralysis or the parasite result, followed by subsequent expulsion or digestion.
- Pyrantel pamoate
Antiprotozoal agents is a class of pharmaceuticals used for cure of protozoan infection. Antiprotozoals are used to treat protozoal infections, which include amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis. At present, many of the treatments for these infections are limited by their toxicity.
- Proguanil with atovaquone
- Metronidazole and Tinidazole
Antiretroviral treatment (also known as antiretroviral therapy or ART) are the drugs that treat HIV. Many people living with HIV are taking treatment and staying healthy as a result. Current treatment for HIV is not a cure for HIV, but it can keep HIV under control very effectively.
The drugs used to treat HIV are called antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). There are several different types and they work in different ways. HIV treatment is made up of three or more antiretroviral drugs taken together. Sometimes, these drugs are combined into one pill.
There are lots of antiretroviral drugs, and they can be combined in different ways. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a combination of antiretroviral drugs for people starting HIV treatment:
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.
Antiviral drugs are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also termed antibacterial), antifungal and antiparasitic drugs, or antiviral drugs based on monoclonal antibodies. Most antivirals are considered relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections. They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body. Natural antivirals are produced by some plants such as eucalyptus.
- Abacavir Use for HIV
- Acyclovir (Aciclovir) Use for herpes e.g. Chicken pox
- Adefovir Use for chronic Hepatitis B
- Amantadine Use for influenza
- Amprenavir(Agenerase) Use for inhibition of HIV
- Atripla (fixed dose drug)
- Fixed dose combination (antiretroviral)
- Fusion inhibitor
- Integrase inhibitor
- Interferon type III
- Interferon type II
- Interferon type I
- Nucleoside analogues
- Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
- Peginterferon alfa-2a
- Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)
- Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
- Synergistic enhancer (antiretroviral)
- Tenofovir disoproxil
- Valaciclovir (Valtrex)
- Zanamivir (Relenza)
Antimalarial drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of malaria infection. Most antimalarial drugs target the erythrocytic stage of malaria infection, which is the phase of infection that causes symptomatic illness. The extent of preerythrocytic (hepatic stage) activity for most antimalarial drugs is not well characterized.
Treatment of the acute blood stage infection is necessary for malaria caused by all malaria species. In addition, for infection due to Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax, terminal prophylaxis is required with a drug active against hypnozoites (which can remain dormant in the liver for months and, occasionally, years after the initial infection).
- Quinine and related agents
- Artemisinin and derivatives
Used to treat and prevent athlete’s foot, ringworm, candidiasis and serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are normally prescribed by a doctor’s, but a some are also available OTC.
Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organism with fewer adverse effects to the host. Unlike bacteria, fungi and humans share a common ancestor. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the biological level. This makes it more difficult to discover drugs that target fungi without affecting human cells. As a consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side-effects. Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are not used properly.
Quinolones act by the rapid inhibition of bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to cell death. The primary targets are DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV which are involved in the maintenance of the superhelical structure of DNA. Quinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibacterials in the world and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans. Because of the wide use (and overuse) of these drugs, the number of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains has been growing steadily since the 1990s. As is the case with other antibacterial agents, the rise in quinolone resistance threatens the clinical utility of this important drug class.
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are considered broad-spectrum antibiotics. This means that they are effective against a wide range of bacteria.
However, because of their risk of serious side effects, the FDA has advised that they should only be used to treat conditions such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections when other, less toxic antibiotics are not appropriate.
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones may also be used to treat unusual infections such as anthrax or plague. Doctors may also decide to use them for other types of infection when other alternative treatment options have failed or cannot be used.
Oxazolidinones are new group of antibiotics. These drugs are active against a large spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin and vancomycin resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci and anaerobes. Oxazolidinones restricts protein synthesis by binding at the P site at the ribosomal 50S subunit. Resistance to other protein synthesis inhibitors does not affect oxazolidinone activity, however rare development of oxazolidinone resistance cases, associated with 23S rRNA alterations during treatment have been reported.
Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone available, has been successfully used for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Pharmacokinetic properties and its good penetration and accumulation in the tissue including bone, lung, vegetations, haematoma and cerebrospinal fluid, allow its use for surgical infections.
The macrolides are a class of natural drugs are made up of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Some macrolides have antibiotic or antifungal activity and are used as pharmaceutical drugs.
Catagories of Macrolides are:
- Antibiotic macrolides
- Non-antibiotic macrolides
- Antifungal drugs
- Toxic macrolides
Tetracyclines are a class of antibiotics with broad-spectrum activity (activity against a wide range of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, protozoa and chlamydiae). They were discovered in the 1940s and the first tetracyclines were obtained or derived from Streptomycesbacteria. Although still in widespread use, both in human and veterinary medicine, bacterial resistance is of major concern.
Tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis in the microbial RNA by reversibly binding to the 30S ribosome and preventing the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal acceptor site. They are primarily bacteriostatic (prevent bacteria from reproducing but don’t necessarily kill them).
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by bacteria that either multiply very quickly or are difficult to treat.
Aminoglycosides are called bactericidal antibiotics because they kill bacteria directly. They accomplish this by stopping bacteria from producing proteins needed for their survival.
Because aminoglycosides are normally used to treat serious infections, they are typically administered into the veins of the body.
However, some aminoglycosides can be taken orally, or as ear or eye drops.
- Gentak and Genoptic (eye drops)
- Neo-Fradin (oral)
Cephalosporins are anti bacterial drugs. Cephalosporins inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting growth of cell wall. They are divided into five generations depending upon on when the drugs are developed. In short, each generation of drug is effective against certain types of bacteria.
First-generation cephalosporins work primarily against infections which are easy to treat, while later-generation cephalosporins were used to treat more severe bacterial infections. Cephalosporins have molecular similarity with penicillins, so they might lead to an allergic reaction in some people who are allergic to penicillins.
Depending on penicillin allergy, you may still be able to take cephalosporins, but not first- or second-generation drugs.
- Cefuroxime Axetil
- Cefpodoxime Proxetil
- Ceftaroline fosamil
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic drugs generally used for treatment of severe and high risk bacterial infections. These antibiotics are generally reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics which kills bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Carbapenems are typically not affected by evolving antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.
Concern has arisen in recent years over increasing rates of resistance to carbapenems, as there are few therapeutic options for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria.
- Imipenem /Cilastatin
- Meropenem / Vaborbactam
- Merrem IV
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics which are used to treat different types of gram positive and gram negative bacterial infections. Beta lactam ring is located in their structure due to this reason these drugs are also called as beta lactam antibiotics. This beta lactam ring is sensitive against some bacteria and can be hydrolyzed by beta lactamases.
Penicillins are anti bacterial antibiotics, they kills the microorganisms when they are used at therapeutic dose. Penicillins acts by preventing the cross linking of amino acid chains in the bacterial cell wall. This does not affect pre-existing bacteria, but newly produced bacterial cells have weak cell walls which can be easily broken.
- Clavulanic acid
More than twenty drugs have been developed for the cure of TB. Most of them developed few years ago.
The drugs are used in different formulations in different types and stages. Some TB drugs used only for the treatment of new patients who are unlikely to have resistance to any of the TB drugs. Others are only used for the treatment of drug resistant TB. There are few drugs under trials for TB drugs, but they are still undergoing testing.
- Isoniazid (INH)
- Rifampin (RIF)
- Ethambutol (EMB)
- Pyrazinamide (PZA)
These drugs are used in formulations.